This section contains
listings of Useful
organisations as I
found them at the beginning of 1994.
Researching the guide then I
found few publications which deal specifically with
participation and partnership. Not surprisingly, books of
relevant techniques are fewer still. There are more around
now - at the end of 1998 - and I hope to revise this
The references below are
some of the main sources of information and inspiration I
found in developing theory and finding examples of
techniques. Please send me your own favourites for inclusion
in updates email@example.com.
101 ways to generate great ideas.
Timothy R. V. Foster, Kogan Page,1991.
A consultant lists 101 ways to understand problems, generate
ideas in groups, develop solutions and evaluate which to
Awareness through to action.
Newcastle Architecture Workshop, 1992.
A pack containing scores of techniques for achieving
participation in environmental projects and the design
process. Useful for work in schools, training for
professionals and with community groups.
A-Z of meetings.
Sue Ward, Pluto Press, 1985.
Reflects the author's experience in the trade union movement
and Labour Party, and is strong on the formalities of
constitutions, rules, and standing orders.
Building effective local partnerships.
Local Government Management Board, 1993.
Guidelines based on case studies of partnerships, aimed at
both local authorities and voluntary bodies with whom they
may develop partnership arrangements.
Change and how to help it happen.
Community Education Training Unit, 1994.
A comprehensive and practical guide to facilitation methods
for organisational change. The approach and methods can be
adapted for participation processes.
Citizen action: taking action in your community.
Des Wilson with Leighton Andrews and Maurice Frankel,
The nuts and bolts of organising a local campaign.
Citizen involvement: a practical guide for
Peter Beresford and Suzy Croft, Macmillan, 1993.
A guide to participation and empowerment which focuses on
initiatives in social work and social services. Plenty of
insights from service users as well as practitioners, and
guidelines for agencies.
Community enterprise from the bottom up.
Edited by Nick Love, Lincolnshire Wolds Publications,
Case studies and advice on creating local community-based
Community involvement in City Challenge.
Richard MacFarlane, NCVO, 1993.
A good practice guide based on case studies of City
Challenge projects. Provides insights into the problems of
achieving participation against tight timetables and
Treasury funding procedures.
Community profiling: a guide to identifying local
Paul Burton, School for Advanced Urban Studies, 1993.
Provides a 10-step practical guide to developing a community
profile which is defined as `a social, environmental and
economic description of a given area which is used to inform
Andrew Floyer Acland, The Environment Council, 1992.
Booklet on `how to reach agreement by consent in
multi-party, multi-issue situations.' Describes a five stage
process: Assessment, Initiation, Meetings, Decisions, Making
the Solutions Work. Free - call the Council.
Creating Development Trusts.
Diane Warburton and David Wilcox, HMSO, 1988.
Case studies of joint public, private, community
organisations concerned with area conservation and renewal.
Also outlines the start up process for a trust, and elements
of good practice.
Environment Trust Associates, Local Government Management
A handbook on participation techniques, covering some of the
same ground as this guide. Provides more detailed guidance
on, for example, workshops, surveys, and Planning for
The Local Government Government Management Board is
also producing a series of free papers on community
participation and other issues relating to Agenda 21 - the
programme being developed by local authorities following the
1992 Rio Earth Summit..
Croner's Management of Voluntary Organisations.
Croner Publications, 1989 plus quarterly updates.
Substantial compendium of management advice, aimed at
staffed voluntary organisations.
Designing your own simulations.
Ken Jones, Methuen, 1985.
Aimed mainly at teachers, but the approach is more widely
Getting organised: a handbook for non-statutory
Christine Holloway and Shirley Otto, Bedford Square Press,
The authors write that: `The purpose of this book is to help
you bring about changes which will improve the effectiveness
of your organisation.' It does this by raising key
management issues and providing checklists and
Getting to yes.
Roger Fisher and William Ury, Hutchinson, 1981.
A classic work on negotiation with applications spanning
personal relationships, work and international diplomacy.
Key elements of the method are: Separate the people from the
problem; Focus on interests, not positions; Invent options
for mutual gain; Insist on objective criteria. It deals with
What if they are more powerful? What if they won't play?
What if they use dirty tricks?
How to make meetings work.
Malcolm Peel, Kogan Page, 1988.
Covers planning for meetings, how groups work, different
roles, formal procedures, legal issues, and conferences.
Brief section on `special meetings' for brainstorming,
negotiation, therapy, training, and a section on
How to solve your problems.
Brenda Rogers, Sheldon Press, 1991.
Counsellor and teacher deals with problems from the personal
perspective, using techniques also relevant to groups and
organisations. For example, chapters include Defining and
clarifying the Problem; Collecting information; Creative
thinking; Generating more ideas; Making decisions; Putting
your decisions into action.
Influencing with integrity.
Genie Z. Laborde, Syntony Publishing, 1983.
Early application of neuro-linguistic programming (NLP) by a
US communication consultant. Provides a theoretical basis
for advice on how to establish rapport with your audience,
clarify the outcomes you are seeking, read body language,
interpret responses, and run meetings effectively.
Introduction to neuro-linguistic programming.
Joseph O'Connor and John Seymour, Thorsons Publishing Group,
A more detailed description of NLP, its psychological basis
and use of linguistic analysis. Deals with the underlying
processes of communication.
Just about managing?
Sandy Adirondack, London Voluntary Service Council,
Best-selling guide to effective management for voluntary
organisations and community groups. Covers all the main
issues, with lots of checklists.
Ann Holmes, Radical Improvements for Peripheral Estates,
Study of community empowerment on housing estates, with a
strong focus on the issues of confidence, communication and
capacity. Twenty of the issues are analysed in detail, with
accompanying exercises to tackle problems.
Local authorities and community development: a strategic
opportunity for the 1990s.
Association of Metropolitan Authorities, 1993.
Recommendations on how local authorities can develop
strategic plans and practical action to secure greater
community involvement in service delivery. Prepared by a
joint working party representing local authorities and
Making it happen: a user's guide to the Neighbourhood
Neighbourhood Initiatives Foundation.
A description of how to use three dimensional models and
other back-up materials to involve communities in
decision-making. Written by Tony Gibson who has pioneered
Planning for Real. NIF has produced about 40 packs and
publications guided by the philosophy that the people who
live and work in neighbourhoods are the real experts.
Mike Pedler and Tom Boydell, Fontana, 1985.
Written for `the thinking manager' by consultants who
specialise in management education and development. Based on
the belief that `you cannot manage others unless you are
able to manage yourself - to be proactive, rather than
allowing yourself to be buffeted and controlled by events
and other people.' To that might be added that you can't
empower other people unless you are empowered yourself.
Manual for action.
Martin Jeffs, Action Resources Group, 1982.
Sub-titled `Techniques to enable groups engaged in action
for change to increase their effectiveness'. The first
edition, published in 1977, grew out of concern with
training for non-violent action. The later edition, revised
by Sandy Merritt, contains over 120 techniques.
Unfortunately difficult to find.
Organising in voluntary and community groups.
National Extension College, 1992.
This title covers two sets of linked materials produced by
NEC: a set of distance learning materials by Anne Stamper
for people following the RSA advanced diploma in the
organisation of community groups, plus a resource pack by
Roger Gomm and Minna Ireland.
Organising things: a guide to successful political
Sue Ward, Pluto Press, 1984.
How to organise public meetings, marches and demonstrations,
lobbies, petitions, conferences, festivals. Written for
campaigners, useful on other fronts as well.
Participation - a tenants' handbook.
Liz Cairncross, David Clapham, Robina Goodlad. Tenant
Participation Advisory Service, 1990.
Written for "tenants' groups and other tenants who may be
trying to have more say over what happens to their homes and
estates." Distinguishes different levels of participation
from listening to control, and deals with some of the
methods for involvement which may be used by landlords.
Planning Together: the art of effective teamwork.
George Gawlinski and Lois Graessle, Bedford Square Press.
Presents a theoretical model for co-operative planning by
any group of people working together as a team, and a
step-by-step approach with exercises. Chapters on Taking
stock; Developing and sharing a vision; Linking values,
policies and strategies; Prioritising aims; Setting
objectives; Getting organised and staying organised;
Evaluating progress. The the model and exercises can be
adapted for participation processes.
Planning under pressure: the strategic choice
John Friend and Allen Hickling, Pergamon Press, 1987
A comprehensive account of the strategic choice approach to
planning, problem-solving and decision-making. Powerful, but
not for the beginner.
Practical problem solving for managers.
Michael Stevens, British Institute of Management, Kogan
The author defines problems as `situations in which we
experience uncertainty or difficulty in achieving what we
want to achieve' and offers the equation `objective +
obstacle = PROBLEM.' He covers defining problems; generating
ideas; solving problems in groups; evaluating solutions; and
getting your solution accepted. Includes useful exercises
Pressure: the A to Z of campaigning in Britain.
Des Wilson. Heinemann, 1984.
A practical guide to running campaigns by one of the most
successful campaigners of the 1970s and 80s. Mainly about
national campaigns, but also readable and relevant for local
groups. See also Citizen Action.
Rational analysis for a problematic world.
Edited by Jonathan Rosenhead, Wiley, 1989.
Brings together in relatively accessible form `super
techniques' for problem solving like Cognitive Mapping, Soft
Systems Methodology and Strategic Choice.
David Osborne and Ted Gaebler, Addison Wesley, 1992.
Contains many examples of new entrepreneurial approaches to
national and local government in the US and is, apparently,
required reading among Ministers and senior Civil Servants
Resource manual for a living revolution.
Virginia Coover, Ellen Deacon, Charles Esser, Christopher
Moore. New Society Publishers, 1985.
US classic developed by people involved in non-violent
social action in the 1970s `for people who are concerned or
angered by the deterioration of our society and who, because
they have some sense that their efforts can have an effect
for change, are looking for tools to transform it.' Relevant
to campaigning and practical action. Sections cover the
theoretical basis for change; working in groups; developing
communities of support; personal growth; consciousness
raising; training and education; organising for change;
exercises and other tools; and practical skills.
Signposts to community development.
Marilyn Taylor, Community Development Foundation, 1992.
Makes community development understandable in under 40
pages: a considerable achievement.
Tenant participation in housing management.
Institute of Housing and Tenant Participation Advisory
A guide to good practice based on research undertaken by
Glasgow University. Covers the legal requirements of
participation in housing; the pattern of participation found
in research; the process; the participants; outcomes and
achievements; and standards and performance.
The innovator's handbook.
Vincent Nolan, Penguin, 1989.
A volume which brings together books on problem solving,
communication and teamwork written by the chairman of
consultants Synectics Limited.
The Tao of Leadership.
John Heider, Wildwood House, 1985.
The author takes the 2500-year-old Chinese classic the Tao
Te Ching - source of `The journey of a thousand miles begins
with a single step' - and shows its relevance for leaders
(and facilitators) today. A reminder that little is new.
Training and how not to panic.
Community Education Training Unit, 1992.
A set of practical guidelines for people involved in
training work with community groups, voluntary organisations
and local authorities. Covers setting up and planning
training events; running the training; exercises and role
plays; doubts and difficulties.
Training and how to enjoy it.
Community Education Training Unit, 1989.
A collection of training exercises devised by people working
in and for community groups and voluntary organisations. The
exercises cover groups and meetings; publicity and
campaigning; equal opportunities; finance and funding;
planning and problem solving.
Charles Handy, Penguin, 1993.
Charles Handy is the most accessible of the management
gurus. He is always readable, understands the voluntary
sector, and puts people first. This book deals with key
issues like culture, motivation, leadership, power and so
offers insights into what makes organisations participatory
or non-participatory. Understanding Voluntary Organisations
is also available in Penguin.
Using management games.
Chris Elgood, Gower, 1990.
Guidance on developing training games, simulation and
Voluntary but not amateur.
Duncan Forbes, Ruth Hayes and Jacki Reason, London Voluntary
Service Council, 1990.
A guide to the law for voluntary organisations and community
groups covering responsibilities as an organisation;
employment; premises; insurance; fundraising; accounts;
public activities; computers; facing closure.
Warren Feek, Bedford Square Press, 1988.
How to improve an organisation's self-awareness, motivation,
performance (and appeal to funders) by using evaluation
Yes or no: the guide to better decisions.
Spencer Johnson, Harper Collins,1992.
Neatly uses the analogy of a journey to illustrate the main
processes of decision-making. See Yes or no in the A-Z
Your organisation: what is it for?
John Argenti, McGraw Hill, 1993.
Argues strongly that all organisations must identify
beneficiaries, set performance indicators which ensure value
is delivered to them, and create governing bodies which
represent their interests.
Information correct at March 1994 - call organisations
ACRE (Action with Communities in Rural England)
Gloucestershire GL7 1TW
tel: 01285 653477
The national contact point for 38 county-based Rural Community Councils.
Association of Community Technical Aid Centres (ACTAC)
64 Mount Pleasant,
Liverpool L3 5SD
tel: 0151 708 7607
ACTAC provides training, consultancy and project support to local groups
as well as representing a national network of professionals who provide
local technical support.
Association of Community Trusts and Foundations
High Holborn House,
52-54 High Holborn,
London WC1V 6RL
tel: 0171 831 0033
The national body representing fundraising and grant-making Community Trusts.
Association of Metropolitan Authorities
35 Great Smith Street,
London SW1P 3BJ
tel: 0171 222 8100
Represents metropolian local authorities. Published a recent report on local
authorities and community development - see Useful Publications.
Civic Trust Regeneration Unit
17 Carlton House Terrace,
London SW1Y 5AW.
tel: 0171 930 0914
The Unit runs a Winning Partnerships programme as well offering consultancy
on urban regeneration partnerships .
Community Development Foundation
60 Highbury Grove,
London N5 2AG
tel: 0171 226 5375
A non-departmental public body which aims to strengthen communities by influencing
policy, promoting best practice and supporting community initiatives.
Community Education Development Centre
Unit C1, Grovelands Court,
Coventry CV7 9NE
tel: 024 7658 8440
The national focus for community education in the UK. Their Resources catalogue
is a useful mail order source of books and other materials in the field.
Community Education Training Unit
Halifax HX1 3AG
tel: 01422 357394
Produces excellent packs on training and facilitation.
Community Land and Workspace Services (CLAWS)
61 - 71 Collier St,
London N1 9DF.
tel: 0171 833 2909
Gives building, landscape design and architectural advice to community groups.
See Design Game in the A-Z section.
8/9 Upper Street,
London N1 OPQ.
tel: 0171 226 0189
A membership network of 800 local community organisations, providing information,
advice, and training.
Community Operational Research Unit
Barnsley S75 3ET
tel: 01226 285426
Assists community groups by applying many of the techniques featured in
Croner Publications Ltd
Kingston upon Thames,
Surrey KT2 6SR
tel: 0181 547 3333
Publishers of Management of Voluntary Organisations.
Development Trusts Association
20 Conduit Place,
London W2 1HZ.
tel: 0171 706 4951
The national umbrella organisation for community-based development organisations.
Directory of Social Change
London NW3 1HL
tel: 0171 435 8171
Independent national charity which runs a wide range of training courses
and produces practical handbooks. Also produces a publications catalogue
including some other titles quoted in this guide.
Environment Council, The
21 Elizabeth Street,
London SW1W 9RP
tel: 0171824 8411
Runs training sessions and an Environmental Resolve consultancy programme
of consensus building.
85/87 Cornwall Street,
Birmingham B3 3BY
tel: 0121 236 8565
The Foundation funds and support a network of 34 local Groundwork Trusts,
which are public, private and voluntary partnerships engaged in environmental
Information for Action Ltd
PO Box 277,
Brighton BN1 4PF
tel: 01273 724575
A software consultancy which produces the specialist Cata-LIST database
designed for community groups.
Lincolnshire Wolds Publications
Caistor LN7 6UE.
tel: 01472 851558
Publish Community enterprise from the bottom up.
Local Government Management Board
Luton LU1 2TS
tel: 01582 451166
Represents and supports local authorities through research, training and
London Voluntary Service Council
68 Chalton Street,
London NW1 1JR
tel: 0171 388 0241
Publishes a number of the books on management of voluntary organisations
mentioned in this guide.
National Association of Councils for Voluntary Service
177 Arundel Court,
Sheffield S1 2NU.
tel: 01742 786636
Will provide details of your local Council for Voluntary Service, which
will be a contact point for voluntary organisations in your area.
National Council for Voluntary Organisations (NCVO)
8 Regents Wharf,
All Saints Street,
London N1 9LR
tel: 0171 713 6161
The national body for the voluntary sector.
National Extension College (NEC)
The Michael Young Centre
Cambridge. CB2 2HN
tel: 01223 400300 fax: 01223 400213
Publish open learning courses, offer distance learning courses and bespoke
tailor-made work-based learning programmes
Neighbourhood Initiatives Foundation
Telford TF3 3QN
tel: 01952 590777
See Planning for Real in the A-Z section. NIF sells a range of packs and
also offers consultancy support on participation.
Newcastle Architecture Workshop Ltd
Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 4XN.
tel: 0191 261 7349
The workshop is an educational charity providing an environmental education
and community technical aid and design service. See Awareness through to
action under Useful Publications.
13 Pelham Square,
Brighton BN1 4ET
Offers consultancy and training on participation and partnership organisations;
where you can contact the author of this guide. David Wilcox firstname.lastname@example.org
Planning Aid for London
5 Calvert Avenue,
London E2 7JP.
tel: 0171 613 4435.
Provides advice on town planning issues and encourages
people to become involved in shaping their environment. Can
provide addresses of similar organisations elsewhere.
Priority Focus Team
Sheffield S1 2HH
tel: 01742 734024
See Priority Search in the A-Z section.
Radical Improvements for Peripheral Estates
C/o Middlesbrough Borough Council,
Middlesbrough TS1 2RU.
tel: 01642 245432
Published Limbering up, a study of community empowerment on
peripheral housing estates.
Royal Institute of British Architects
Community Architecture Resource Centre,
66 Portland Place,
London W1N 4AD
tel: 0171 580 5533.
The resource centre organises training for community groups
developing building and environmental projects, and
administers a fund for groups undertaking feasibility
studies. Also supplies information on architects who will
School for Advanced Urban Studies
Bristol BS8 4EA
tel: 01272 741117
Research, consultancy, training and publications, including
work on issues of participation and partnership.
Shell Better Britain Campaign
Birmingham B43 5BR
tel: 0121 358 0744
A partnership of 15 organisations with Shell UK, providing
information, grants and advice to local groups. The free
Guide to a Better Britain is an excellent source of ideas
and help about community-based environmental projects.
Standing Conference for Community Development
356 Glossop Road,
Sheffield S10 2HW
tel: 01742 701718
A `network of networks' for activists, paid workers and
organisations in the field. Call for details and local
Sheffield Science Park,
Sheffield S1 2NS
tel: 01742 724140
Supplies software for the Strategic Choice decision-making
Tenant Participation Advisory Service
48 The Crescent,
Salford M5 4NY
tel: 0161 745 7903
The national organisation promoting and supporting tenant
Volunteer Centre UK
29 Lower Kings Road,
Herts HP4 2AB
tel: 01442 873311
Runs courses for people working with volunteers, provides
help and advice to groups, and publishes useful